Kandazon and the High Priestess Bobohizan Binjulin Sigayun from Kg. Nunuk Ragang and became a leader there. Sinuangga” and “tapi” is known as the traditional garments for Kadazandusun w omen. Due to the overwhelming Christian influence and some marriages to Muslim spouses, resulting in a mandatory conversion to Islam, still induces outrage and rejection and is known to divide fiercely traditional Kadazans. Today, both Singapore and Malaysia acknowledge the ethnic group as Kadazandusun. This takes place in May, and the two last days of the month are public holidays throughout Sabah. In this short article, the writer shall try to explore the more popular meanings and origins put forward to explain the word ‘Kadazan’. After a long time, they did not come to Pompod Tana. At some time, it may only take a simple inait or prayer to heal the sick. This is where they made the decision to split, in which one group would be heading to Matunggong, Kudat and the other would be heading to the West Coast, particularly Penampang and Papar. Bobohizans can also do preliminary consultations with the susukuon or the good spirit consultants. If the sound of the gong could not be heard anymore, then a spear would be pierced into the ground, called Binorudan. When the Aki Rungsud people refer to the Aki Longuvai people, they would call them tulun antad sid kakadazan which means "people from the shop areas or more advanced place.". The white men not knowing the real meaning of the word ‘dusun’ believed that these people were called ‘Dusun’. Aki Turumpok as the youngest son was regarded as Tandon Tongkob (inheriting father's house) in which Aki Turumpok inherited his father's home. It was said that after the resurrection of Huminodun, from the original Bambaazon, the lifestyle of the Nunuk Ragang community as they were then known, began to improve as there was an abundant supply of food. Pigs that were used to get a blessing or ask forgiveness from Kinoringan cannot be called "vogok/wogok" ("a pig") but it should be called "bwolzi". Glosbe is a collaborative project and every one can add (and remove) translations. The state of Sabah has introduced policies to prevent this decline, which is also happening to other native Sabahan languages. As soon as the harvest is over, these stalks are cut by the priestess and taken into the house of the owner of the field. Donggongon had about 20 shops arranged in two rows on each side of the road, and Kasigui had about 10 shops built on one side of the road. In this short article, the writer shall try to explore the more popular meanings and origins put forward to explain the word ‘Kadazan’. Eventually, the competitions are held at district level where the Sumazau competitions were judged according to its choreography and the magagung according to the gong beats, rhythm and tempo. Moreover, the word ‘Kedayan’ is pronounced as [kedayan], therefore the sound need to have undergone a big change to become in the word ‘Kadazan’, also the sound in ‘Kedayan’ is plosive (“hard d”) whereas the sound in ‘Kadazan’ is implosive (“soft d”). The legend goes on to narrate that the spirit of Huminodun founded the Bobohizans as they were taught the art of rites, ritual practices and ceremonies, taboos, traditional cultures including the art of gong beating and the Sumazau dance. The Penampang Kadazans were scattered in numerous villages in the Penampang District and they still are. Evacuation from the Nunuk Ragang area due to the Minorit Push of Nunuk Ragang, was decided through a meeting between the Bobohizans and the people. Those who put forward this explanation have not given any reasons why the Kadazans of Papar and Penampang had decided to call themselves after the Kedayans.  Its numerous branches and giant thick foliage provided for ideal shelter and habitat of wild life, birds, insects and even spirits according to local beliefs. These names are, however, never used by the tribes themselves, but appear to have been applied to them by the Mohammedan invaders. The article explains in detail on the origins of the Kadazan term. If so, why? In the early 1900s, these brass items were valuable items and became a symbol of family wealth. In the fifties, there were only two towns, namely Donggongon and Kasigui. With regard to the word ‘Dusun’ and how it came to be applied to these people, Owen Rutter in his book, “The Pagans Of North Borneo”, offers us the explanation as to how the word ‘Dusun’ came to be applied to the most largest ethnic group in Sabah. Antara hasil kraftangan yang sinonim dengan etnik kadazandusun ialah wakid, barait, sompoton, pinakol, topi siung, parang dan gayang. The village of Kadazan dusun has a variety of unique dishes. These rules continued until Aki Bobolizan Guraumanuk received a revelation from Lumaag Nabalu to abolish the Law of Gomburon. their protection during a climb.. As they sing, they stamp their feet on the floor in rhythmic timing and at regular intervals uttering the awe-in-sparing "pangkis" which is the triumphant cry of the Kadazans. Specifically, the first group was the Tangaa group. According to a Lotud Bobolian, Bobolian Odun Badin, the term 'Kadazan' means 'the people of the land'. This is not surprising as native peoples of the world seem to refer to themselves as ‘the people’ when calling themselves by name. Some of the more popular explanations put forward to explain the origins and meanings of the word ‘Kadazan’ are: Firstly, it is believed that the word came from ‘kakadazan’, which means ‘towns’. The Kadazans (part of Dusun Peoples)are an ethnic groupindigenousto the state of Sabahin Malaysia. There are many explanations and theories about the origins and meanings of the word ‘Kadazan’. The more popular dishes include hinava, pinasakan, and hinompuka etc. The bambangan fruit is also eaten with meals as an appetiser. Those who proposed this view have not come up with answers as to why these people who did not live in a town had decided to call themselves ‘people of the town’. Those who put forward this explanation have not given any reasons why the Kadazans of Papar and Penampang had decided to call themselves after the Kedayans. It makes our dictionary Malay Kadazan Dusun real, as it is created by … Modern dowry negotiations also include cash and land ownership deeds. Donggongon had about 20 shops arranged in two rows on each side of the road, and Kasigui had about 10 shops built on one side of the road. The Kadazandusun is the largest native group of Bumiputra in Sabah. While conventionally seen as a solemn occasion, death represents one of the most significant rites of passage in Kadazandusun culture. The top of its canopy was estimated to be able to shelter under its seven joined Kadazan-Dusun huts, in which a hut measures 12 by 20 feet. 2, February 1983, pp.151-196––depending on where they lived and what ethnic group they belong to––call themselves ‘the people’. When the first white men came to the shores of Sabah, the first people to meet them were the Bajaus or Malays, and when the white men asked, “Who are the natives living in the Penampang and Papar areas?”, they would have replied, “Orang dusun”, meaning ‘villagers’ or ‘orchard people’. The lake is located in the present place called Kampung Tampias in the area of Lubuk Sugut, Sandakan. It was decided as the best alternative approach to resolve the "Kadazan" or "Dusun" identity crisis that had crippled and impeded the growth and development of the Kadazan-Dusun multi-ethnic community socio-culturally, economically and politically - ever since Kadazan versus Dusun sentiments were politicised in the early 1960s. The late Chief Priestess Bobohizan Bianti Moujing from Kg. Linguistically, this phenomenon seldom happens, what more when the sound does not exist in the sound system of the Kadazan language. The altercation was impactful enough that the Bangkaakon group had to move out and consequently made a settlement in an area known today as Minintod, Inanam.. One branch went east from the Moluccan Island of Halmahera about 1600 BC to colonize eastern Melanesia (1200 BC) and Micronesia (500 BC). In preparation for the ceremony, the village priestess carefully select stalks of paddy and ties them together just before the harvesting period starts. The Protestant influence is due to later British influence during the 20th century. The Kadazans believe in four principal spirits; the Almighty Creator (Minamangun), a living person's spirit (koduduvo), the ghostly spirit of the dead (tombivo) and the evil spirit (ogon). These names mean roughly the same thing––‘the people’.”. These are usually available at the weekend market or Tamu in Donggongon, Penampang in which each set would cost between RM700 to RM1,500. Meanwhile, Aki Longuvai was struggling. Bhd. Closer to home in Vietnam , we have a similar situation where outsiders call the indigenous people by different names but these people also refer to themselves as ‘the people’. The Austronesians finally reached the last uninhabited land on earth, New Zealand, sometime around 1300.". Before Aki Nunuk Ragang passed away, Aki Bobolizan Guraumanuk received a message from Lumaag Nabalu. The grouping of Kadazan and Rungus later arrived in Tempasuk, Kota Belud through the Marak-Parak valley. Let us examine the first explanation that ‘Kadazan’ came from ‘kakadazan’. Another popular dish is pinasakan, which consists of sea or freshwater fish (usually smaller species) cooked with bambangan (a variety of mango found in Borneo) or takob-akob (a very tart dried fruit). In Kadazandusun tradition, souls … As a result, Aki Longuvai was lost in the journey of tracking Aki Rungsud's path until they reached Pinampang or Penampang area ("Pinampang" most probably comes from the Kadazan/Rungus word "pampang" which means "large rocks"). To judge the merits of this explanation, we have to consider the historical background of urban development in the Penampang District. Then, the people of Aki Nunuk Ragang worshipped the tree and named it Nunuk Ragang because they believed the tree was the incarnation of Aki Nunuk Ragang. In pre-Chartered Company days, any contact between disparate groups usually means war, and the Kedayans were residing too far away from Penampang to have any significant relationships with them and to have influenced them to adopt their ethnic name. Aki Nunuk Ragang sent his sons Aki Rungsud (the eldest son) and Aki Longuvai (second son) to the coast by conquering Pompod Tana (Kudat, Kota Marudu and Pitas) so as not to be disturbed by Mizonvaig's invasions. Those holding to traditional religion today believe in a spirit world that is especially important in the cycle of rice cultivation as well as major events in the cycle of life. Presumably, part of this view is the belief that the word ‘Kadazan’ was coined in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. Murut means “People of the Hill”, and majority of this third largest indigenous group of … The Kadazans have also developed their own unique dance and music. The Bobolian or Bobohizan (priestesses) say that the meaning of ‘Kadazan’ is ‘tulun’ or ‘tuhun’––people. Suku Dusun Kimaragang kebanyakannya tinggal di Daerah Kota Marudu di utara Sabah. Aki Bulun however was accompanied by seven extraordinary or highly immune dogs that were said able to beat a tiger. Except for one shop, all the other shops in both Donggongon and Kasigui were owned by Chinese. Ruling Malay political parties have also openly been giving political and economical privileges to Kadazans who agree to convert to Islam as well as to other non-Christian Kadazans. Each group's direction of migration is guided by the flow of Liwagu River. The Bobohizans then taught the people the beat rhythm of tagung, known today as magagung, botibas and dunsai. During the celebration, the most celebrated event is the crowning of the Unduk Ngadau, the harvest festival beauty queen. Credit to Mr Richard Francis T. There are many explanations and theories about the origins and meanings of the word ‘Kadazan’. This ceremony will go on until the break of dawn when preparations are made to feed Bambaazon with the fermented rice (habot), with ingredients similar to tapai, prepared especially for the Bambaazon in the previous evening and tapai. Why would a group of people look for a non-existent foreign word to call themselves? For Dusun, a kindred is a group of relatives recognizing their relationship to a particular individual without regard to whether the relationship is traced through a male or female relative. The meaning of "Bobolizan", derived from the Rungus word "bwolzi" which means "to buy". specializes in nature based tours with packages. The fourth explanation is that the word ‘Kadazan’ means ‘the people’. Most of them are found in the western part of the country, that is around places like Kuala Penyu, Papar, Penampang, Tuaran, Ranau and Kudat, in the Tambunan District of the … According to P.S. They also can read the prayers to 'cleanse the debris' that has been induced into the person's body by evil spirit, cure a person from the effects of black magic and liberate a sick person from the grip or disturbance of the dead. It is the longest performance of the Bobohizan that could last for almost 24 hours.  Islam is also practised by a growing minority. It has been an issue that the present-day Kadazan youths are not inclined to gain skills in playing the traditional music instruments. Notably, many districts have most of the dowry converted into cash. Then, the Momogun population grew more and more during the era of Aki Nunuk Ragang. So that ‘orang Murut’ and ‘Dusun’ [respectively] meant ‘men of the hills’ and ‘men of the orchards’ or ‘gardens’.” Fourthly, it is believed that ‘Kadazan’ means ‘the people’. As the colonialists initially colonized the Penampang area, it had an early development with the establishment of shops for the colonial business's interests at that time. Kadazans and Dusuns share some similarity in language and culture albeit with differences in dialect. Sometimes the botibas gong beat is performed as variation. Many consider their traditional geographical influences as the major difference between the two ethnic groups. P.S. Kadazandusun is the collective name for more than 40 sub-ethnic groups which can be divided to three main groups: the Kadazan/Dusun, Murut and Orang Sungai. Let us examine the first explanation that ‘Kadazan’ came from ‘kakadazan’. Borneo Climb & Dive Sdn. Aki Bulun, without anyone, came to Pompod Tana when he was 17 years old. Therefore, the men responsible for the security of the coast were Aki Rungsud and Aki Longuvai. To fulfill their father's request, Aki Nunuk Ragang kodori (the late), Aki Longuvai promised to send his eldest son, Aki Bulun who was born after they came out of Nunuk Ragang. Kadazan/Dusun group: Central Dusun (Bundu-Liwan of Ranau, Tambunan, Keningau and Papar that is the largest Dusun. Owen Rutter worked in Sabah for five years as District Officer in all five residencies and left Sabah with the onset of the First World War. . According to legend, after 40 days Aki Nunuk Ragang was buried, on the day of the ceremony "Mongupus", there grew a fig tree at the middle of Aki Nunuk Ragang's grave. "Tandon tongkob" means "the content or occupant that remains in the room". Administratively, all Kadazans were categorized as Dusuns. When asking for help from a Bobohizan to cure someone's prolonged or severe illness, the priestess is usually called upon. The Kadazan and Rungus migrated out of Nunuk Ragang through Labuk River. The above account by Owen Rutter seems to suggest that the word ‘dusun’ was used by the Bajaus of the coastal areas of the West Coast in referring to the native people of Penampang and Papar. According to the revelation, any sin may be redeemed or paid with a slaughter which was referred to as "mangaraha" (pork slaughter). An extensive research was carried out by Gundohing Richard Francis Tunggolou entitled, The Origins and Meanings of the terms “Kadazan” and “Dusun". The ceremony of Magavau begins just after sunset. It would require one long practice to gain experience. In Rungus, kakadazan refers to "shops" or basically a town. It also uses locally available ingredients, such as bamboo shoots, sago and fresh water fish. The Bobohizan would be informed with the latest information that will give her a good background in locating to the cause of sickness. All the rivers that flowed to the sea from the highest hills were the places guarded by the spirit of Lumaag Nabalu by inviting it through a ceremony called Momurinaait (mentioning seven names of the main spirits that guarded the Momogun). Kadazan, also called Dusun, or Kadazan Dusun, term embracing a number of peoples that together constitute the largest indigenous ethnic group in the state of Sabah, Malaysia, on the northeastern extremity of the island of Borneo. This was how ‘Dusun’ came to be applied to the largest indigenous ethnic group of Sabah. Thus, magagung competitions and Sumazau competitions are organised at the village level not only to mark the Kaamatan celebrations but rather to preserve and promote the culture of Kadazan music and dance. Three sons of Aki Nunuk Ragang were Aki Rungsud (ancestor of the Rungus), Aki Longuvai (ancestor of the Kadazan) and Aki Turumpok (ancestor of all Dusun tribes). To judge the merits of this explanation, we have to consider the historical background of urban development in the Penampang District. Contemporary Kadazan food is influenced by Chinese and Malay food as well as international trends, and often sees the use of traditional ingredients interpreted in new and novel ways. "Kadazan" is a term referring to the Dusun Tangara most of whom lived in towns. When the first white men came to the shores of Sabah, the first people to meet them were the Bajaus or Malays, and when the white men asked, “Who are the natives living in the Penampang and Papar areas?”, they would have replied, “Orang dusun”, meaning ‘villagers’ or ‘orchard people’. Since then, the gong beats and rhythm were improved for a variety usage. During funerals, the dunsai gong beat is very solemn and fearsome as a symbol of respect for the dead. Kadazan culture is heavily influenced by the farming of rice, culminating in various delicacies and alcoholic drinks prepared through differing home-brewed fermentation processes. In 1985, through the KDCA (formally called KCA) the term Dusun was reintroduced after much pressure from various parties desiring a division between the Kadazan and the 'Orang Dusun' once again. 163, No. The Nunuk Ragang area, after a while, became a place of chaos because Aki Turumpok abandoned the Labus religious laws (animism). Kadazan food is an identity and identification of the Kadazan. Tuhau is a fragrant local root that is often made into a salad or is preserved with vinegar as noonsom. However Kadazan Dusun is the largest indigenous group in Sabah, comprising the blending of two groups with 40 subgroups. They are known as prolific rice-producers, but many have gone into other commercial markets outside their traditional field. This is not surprising as native peoples of the world seem to refer to themselves as ‘the people’ when calling themselves by name. The word ‘Murut’ is derived from the Bajau ‘belud’ ‘hill’ and ‘Dusun’ from the Malay ‘dusun’ ‘orchard’. The writer looked for the word ‘kedaian’ in the Kamus Dewan, a Malay dictionary but failed to find such a word. There was a war between the Tangaa and Bangkaakon which is believed to have occurred somewhere in Tombovo, Putatan. The majority of the Kadazans are Christians, mainly Roman Catholics and some Protestants. In fact, the Nunuk's latex is still used to treat rashes and other minor skin diseases in modern days. The Kadazan have a musical heritage consisting of various types of tagung ensembles - ensembles composed of large hanging, suspended or held, bossed/knobbed gongs which act as drone without any accompanying melodic instrument. The writer looked for the word ‘kedaian’ in the Kamus Dewan, a Malay dictionary but failed to find such a word. 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