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The amplification conditions were slightly modified and the fluorochromes for each marker (new conditions listed in S2 Table). With these 11 SSR markers, we found an average of 7.36 alleles for the West African sample, 9.09 alleles for the Oceanian sample and 10.90 alleles for the American sample (Fig 2). Also, Chaplin is an avid reader. Sweet potatoes entered China in 1594 in response to crop failure. Sweet Potato is a special-edition premium plant that first appeared in the 3.0.1 update of Plants vs. Zombies 2 for the Fall Food Fight Piñata Party event. As sweet potato is propagated vegetatively, farmers use phenotypic traits [9] or organoleptic traits to differentiate and name their varieties [9, 39]. No, Is the Subject Area "Phylogeography" applicable to this article? For example, four accessions called “dankadou” were distributed between the Tropical arid accessions group and Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2. The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a root crop, probably first domesticated somewhere between the Orinoco river in Venezuela north to the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.The oldest sweet potato discovered to date was in the Tres Ventanas cave in the Chilca Canyon region of Peru, ca. UP NEXT. As roots are the idle part of the plant, we collected root characteristics at maturity. Please find below many ways to say potato in different languages. Like the Hannah, Okinawa sweet … Simply made with only one ingredient, Certified organic sweet potato. The result shows that the maximum ΔK value is found with K = 5. Samples were collected with farmers consent. We performed a principal component analysis to obtain synthetic uncorrelated climatic contrast. Yes [18] reported an average of four alleles per locus in 192 accessions from Uganda with 10 SSRs used. Two clusters were specific to a country: the group called “Sahelian accessions” was linked to Senegal and the group called “Tropical accessions” to Togo. From one to three nodes of each of the 112 accessions were planted (236 cuttings with an average 2.10 per accession). Sweet and regular potatoes are both tuberous root vegetables, but they differ in appearance and taste. They never used written instructions in the kitchen. In the United States, the terms “yam” and “sweet potato” are used interchangeably, but they are completely different vegetables. Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal, Many of these are unique to a particular country or region. Cover bottom of the au gratin pan in olive oil. Copyright: © 2017 Glato et al. All the accessions from the northern part of Togo were in this group, named “Tropical arid accessions”. A p-value < 5% was considered to be significant. Access other dictionaries such as English to Arabic, English to French, and English to Hindi to check the Sweet Potato meaning in different languages. Yes You can find words like Sweet Potato from dictionary in multiple languages like Urdu, Arabic, Hindi, Spanish, French and other languages. Analysis of sweet potato diversity using SSRs markers was recently initiated [9, 19, 20]. Preheat oven to 425º. Both potatoes and sweet potatoes are rich in nutrients, including many different vitamins and minerals. The different genetic groups were also distinguished by the 21 agro-morphological traits (Table 2). 8000 BCE, but it is believed to have been a wild form. We found an association between the first axis of the PCA and the DAPC group (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 10−6). The number indicates the number of accessions. These values are comparable to those reported in similar studies on the sweet potato in East Africa [33], with a mean of 6.1 alleles per locus compared to 7.4 found in the present study. A total of 21 morphological descriptors [22], were used as agro-morphological characteristics of these three organs: leaf, stem, and root. For one sweet potato, microwave on 100 percent power for 5 minutes, rotating halfway through. The red-purplish skin hides a delicious golden inside. The least represented group was “Sahelian accessions”, which was found in only 8% of the villages. Field code, extraction code, genetic group, local name, village, latitude, longitude and country are shown. Among the tools used for assessing the diversity of African sweet potato, agro-morphological analysis was conducted in Tanzania [14], Kenya [15] and Burkina-Faso [16]. For each accession, a stem was sampled and kept isolated for further genetic and phenotypic experiments. Except that it isn't in wiktionary - there are less names in various languages there than in the rump of this article. Pexels. DNA was checked on 0.8% agarose gel. Different genotypes from different genetic clusters were generally found within the villages. No, Is the Subject Area "Senegal" applicable to this article? Identifying specific morphological traits related to the genetic groups is a very useful way to study diversity in the field, and morphology could help design conservation strategies that maximize genetic diversity. Convenience stores also sell ready-to-eat sweet potatoes, but bake them on a special electric grill rather than in an oven., Editor: Roberto Papa, Università Politecnica delle Marche, ITALY, Received: December 26, 2015; Accepted: May 2, 2017; Published: May 26, 2017. Yams are starchy and have a rough, brown exterior. That means there are more than 50 different ways to say sweet potato, from "acok" in Ateso, the language … Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For many people, a sweet potato is simply a sweet potato, but those in the food industry are familiar with the different cultivars that are grown in Taiwan. [34] found a mean of four alleles in 57 sweet potato from Tanzania. This can be explained by frequent exchanges between villages in Togo because farmers go to other villages to look for work. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Change language & content: Switch to Latino (Español) ... How to Cook a Sweet Potato in the Microwave Southern Living. When K = 5 (Fig 3), the first group contained 18 accessions, 15 from Togo and three from Senegal. Yellow- or white-fleshed sweet potatoes have a dry and crumbly texture when baked and are not moist enough to make tender pancakes, so use the orange variety. In addition, sweet potato is receiving increased attention as a rich source of vitamin A [3, 2]. Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. The names given to the accessions by the farmers did not match the genetic groups. With their deliciously smooth taste and nutrient content, sweet potatoes are perfect as both a staple food and as a "sometimes" snack. The relationship between a genetic group and specific geographical features has been previously reported [24]. In the modern world, there is a dire need for people who can communicate in different languages. You can get more than one meaning for one word in Urdu. The method we used to choose the appropriate value of K, which explained our dataset well. The way the plant is named and its importance to the farmers probably explains this observation. The other tropical accessions, “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group1” and “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2”, were present in 25% of the villages. No, Is the Subject Area "Africa" applicable to this article? Examples of sweet potato in a sentence, how to use it. The geographical location of Gullahs along the coasts of South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia and Florida enabled them to sustain their language, foodways, customs and spiritual practices throughout slavery and until the present time. In Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic, the sweet potato is called batata. Sweet potato flesh varies from orange to yellow-orange, white, purple and red. Sweet Potato Meaning in Urdu - In the age of digital communication, any person should learn and understand multiple languages for better communication. The pellet was left to dry at room temperature and resuspended in 100 μl of 1x Tris EDTA buffer (TE). They come from separate plant families, offer different … We weighed the items and calculated our money appropriately, learning a lesson in thrift and self-sufficiency. This hypothesis of specific climatic adaptation could be tested and if validated suggest possible strategy of crop adaptation to future conditions. At Sunday dinners, as we sat at the dinner table, my mother boasted about the wonderful job we did in selecting sweet potatoes, collards and other edibles. Place pieces in pan and cover in olive oil. Laboratoire Mixte International Adaptation des Plantes et microorganismes aux Stress Environnementaux (LAPSE), Dakar, Sénégal, Affiliation Sweet potatoes are a great source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals. here. Each locus value corresponds to the mean PIC of all the alleles of the corresponding markers. We observed that each village cultivated accessions from different genetic groups, but did not differentiate the varieties with specific local names. Featured below is a detailed overview of the global Sweet Potato market information. America has the highest number of alleles, approximately 11, followed by Oceania with 9 and Africa with 7. This food played a significant role in shaping my cultural identity, especially since it represents how the Gullah community is connected to the earth. At first glance, the exterior of the sweet potato seems to be the same as a normal potato; on closer inspection however, the skin colour and the shape are very different. 06°10’27.2” E 001°12’ 39.6”N). Fourth is Ethiopia at 2,701,599 metric tons. At this stage, we could not clearly differentiated these two hypotheses. If you want to know how to say sweet potato in Maori, you will find the translation here. However, genetic bottlenecks created during the introduction and later selection may also have played a role in this genetic differentiation. Currently, she has publications in process on James Baldwin, Marvin Gaye and the Gullah Geechee culture. The difference is significant when p-value < 0.05. For successive values of K from 3 to 5, six agro-morphological traits distinguished a genetic group whatever the K-value: the main color of the skin of the root, leaf outline, the number of lobes, the type of central leaf lobe, the color of the leaf veins and the color of the immature leaf. If you’re planning to bash the rat with a potato - sure! The space between plants and between rows was 1 m. The experiment was repeated three times, once in 2012 and twice in 2013. Here is the translation and the Maori word for sweet potato: Consequently, comparisons between studies of morphological diversity are difficult. Yams and sweet potatoes are in fact two different root vegetables. [41], for cassava varieties among Makushi Ameridins in Guyana. This cultural carryover, the love for sweet potatoes, gets more pronounced during the holiday seasons and at events like the MOJA Cultural Arts Festival in Charleston, which celebrates the contributions African American and Caribbean cultures made to the American and international landscapes. Sweet potato pie created by Shonda Chaplin. SSRs were diluted and pooled for migration on an ABI 3130 XL 16 capillary sequencer. Wilcoxon paired tests were then performed for each significant trait to assess which specific genetic group differed significantly from the others. Amplifications were performed on 96-well plates with two negative water controls and four positive DNA controls. Not only does this one-skillet dinner pack in … Yes The GPS coordinates of each sampling site were recorded. The orange fleshed varieties are most common in the USA and Europe; the white fleshed are more popular in the Asian and Arabic kitchen. I … So, PIC = 1- Pi2 with Pi the frequency of allele i. The morphological characteristics of the leaf and stem were recorded 90 days after planting. Yes Here, we focus on the sweet potato. To assess relationships between agro-morphological traits and genetic clustering, we performed Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric tests. She is also a defensive plant, possessing a toughness scale equivalent that of a Wall-nut. You can find her on Instagram at @regalbadnesd. An individual is represented as a vertical bar. The genetic groups were also associated with morphological differentiation, mainly the shape of the leaves and the color of the stem or root. Third is Tanzania at 3,345,170 metric tons. Find the best free sweet potato videos. When K = 3, seven traits were associated. A mean of 3.56 samples was collected per village. The neighbor joining tree method was used with the Euclidean genetic distance among accessions as implemented in PowerMarker 3.25 [26]. Numerous varieties. Two different people scored the alleles. The cumulative variance explained by the 12 first PCs axes was 74.7%, and consequently we retained these 12 axes (S1 Fig). 8000 BCE, but it is believed to have been a wild form. In both cases, connections to the past resonate—connections to an African heritage and to a childhood comfort. There are a ton of different kinds of sweet potatoes from Beauregard to Regal, but it’s hard to find most of them in the store. The PCA axes were then used to check for a relationship between climate variables and inferred cluster groups using Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric tests. The New Zealand diet The New Zealand diet is strongly influenced by English cuisine, not only because it was a former colony of the British Empire, but also for similar climatic and geological characteristics. By the end of our phone conversation, she and I had spun tales from our memories of this simple root, tales that revealed its cultural, historic, economic, and nutritional influence on our community. Group five contained 19 accessions including five from Senegal and the rest from Togo. The number of alleles ranged from seven to 22 for Tropical America accessions, four to 17 for Oceanian accessions and four to 12for West African accessions (S4 Table). Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal, We hope this will help you to understand Japanese better. Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal, This suggest another interesting hypothesis to be tested about the diffusion of sweet potato in Africa. Japanese Sweet Potatoes are different from normal sweet potatoes and yams that you might be used to. (i) Initial dataset (s) second dataset (1) represents the number of alleles on the 132 samples chosen randomly on data base of Roullier et al (2011). Nigerians prefer their sweet potato in porridge, fermented drinks, and plain boiled. Locus ib292 had the highest number of alleles and loci J263 and J315 the lowest (S3 Table). The 11 markers used in our study were the same as those used in a previous study [24]. In the early 20th century , "soft" sweet potatoes… Further, Twitty notes that the sweet potato, originating from Central and South Americas, was known as the “Spanish potato” in colonial America. The trait was considered as specific to a group when the p-value of the test was < 0.05 for paired tests. The analysis using STRUCTURE tend also favored five clusters (S4 Fig). Genetic clusters and morphologic traits. What is a yam?. There are more than 1,000 different sweet potato varieties in the world. Although Gullahs, like many people, use the terms yams and sweet potatoes interchangeably, these two roots are different. Michael W. Twitty, a culinary historian and author of Cooking Gene , distinguishes between the two delicacies: “Yam is definitely a term from Western Africa, especially Senegambia, where in several West Atlantic languages it refers to the verb, nyam, to eat. In each case, in addition to the six common traits, we found the secondary color of the skin, pubescence, type of leaf lobe for K = 4, and petiole color, pubescence, and type of leaf lobe type for K = 5 (Table 2). The sampled village arearranged following the first axis according to a climatic gradient from the humid south (DANYI PEYEYEME) to the arid tropical north (GABONBONG) of Togo, followed by the Saharan climat of Senegal (DAGANA). This table shows that the two datasets produce approximately the same results: 92% of the samples are allocated to same group in the two datasets. That means there are more than 50 different ways to say sweet potato, from “acok” in Ateso, the language spoken by the people showing off their drying rock, to “maku” in Lugbara. Tropical in origin, sweet potatoes do require ample heat over a long season (at least four frost-free months), but they can be grown successfully at higher latitudes with a little extra attention. ... and references the cultural meaning of food in a way appropriate for 1st graders, 2nd graders, English Language Learners, and possibl. The DNA solution was stored at -20°C until genotyping. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) implemented in the ADENEGET package [28] using R software 3.1.1 [29] was used to assess the distribution of genetic diversity. Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. The two groups “Tropical accessions” and “Sahelian accessions” were certainly shaped by ecological conditions, and might reflect specific adaptation to climate and soil. I told my her that I would dress my treat with cinnamon. This is reflected in the way my mother raised me. Given an allotted amount of money and clear instructions for the purchase, my sisters and I selected vegetables that were listed only in memory. We used the same sampling protocol as in Togo, except that young leaves were collected instead of stems. And though Europeans considered them an exotic delicacy, they took hold within cuisine before the standard “Irish” potato did. But in all seriousness, sweet potato’s are one of the few natural rat repellents. The scientific name for sweet potatoes is Ipomoea batatas.Sweet potatoes of all kinds are good alternatives to white potatoes. Sweet Potatoes and Yams Start studying Potatoes in different languages. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values assessed from two to 12 clusters decreased steadily with increasing K (S2 Fig). My chat with my sister about the delicious sweet potato became nostalgic as we recalled the various sweet potato recipes that infused our childhood and culture growing up on the peninsula of Charleston, South Carolina, during the 1970s. Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. Leaves were collected from the Togo samples during the 2012 field experiment. Our study has shown that local names used for sweet potato landraces were not correlated with genetic groups (S1 Table). “Tropical accession” also had very specific traits: the number of lobes, type of central lobe of the leaf, and pubescence (S8 Table). The group subdivision obtained was clear when we moved from K = 3 to K = 4 and K = 5. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. If it isn't fork-tender after five minutes, continue to microwave in one-minute increments until done. A Wilcoxon paired test with the number of alleles was used to assess differences in diversity. The k-mean cluster, K from 3 to 5 for each dataset was tested. Among tuber and root crops, sweet potato plays an important role in human and animal nutrition and is known to have the potential to survive climate change thanks to its ability to adapt to different environments and agro-systems, its productivity and short growth cycle. Here is the translation and the Japanese word for sweet potato: スイートポテト Edit. The graph shows the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) for increasing values of K (1 to 20) which corresponds to the number of clusters to choose. The collection was done with permission of doctors Bassirou Diallo (ISRA) from Senegal and Nenonene Amen Yawo (ESA) from Togo. A total of 21 agro-morphological traits were used. Sub-Saharan agriculture has been identified as vulnerable to ongoing climate change. However, one should be cautious, because different sets of SSR markers are used, and type and number of repetitions for the microsatellite motif impact the number of alleles and consequently the diversity assessment [35] Nevertheless, a higher diversity in our study is not unexpected, because we sampled a greater climatic contrast in West Africa and more than one country. The nutritional content of potatoes and sweet potatoes. By looking at example sentences with the word Sweet Potato, you can easily learn the use of Sweet Potato in English sentence. Under this scenario, West Africa sweet potato is derived from East African sweet potato. Remarkably, the number of names recorded in our study was relatively small, with only 31 local names for 132 accessions. A thorough analysis of sweet potato diversity of the whole Africa remains to be done. The two other clusters “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2” contained accessions either from Togo or Senegal and the climatic conditions were less well defined. The Gullah culture and language were developed by descendants of enslaved Africans—predominately people from West Africa—who were brought to America primarily because of their skills in the cultivation of rice. Environmental and climatic variations have also been shown to be associated with the diversity of cassava in Amazonia [36]. The main trait used to identify and or name varieties was the color of the skin of the tuber and the color of the vine. However, confirming this hypothesis would require not only a similar set of markers but also a very similar sampling strategy. Yes Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France, Affiliations Using this method, only 12 individuals have changed their place for K = 3, 6 for K = 4 and 16 for K = 5. Jennie Chaplin grew up in Charleston, South Carolina, and now resides in Washington, D.C.  She is a cultural interpreter. A total of 90 alleles were observed. For K = 4 and K = 5, nine traits were associated. A lot of people are always confused in choosing between sweet and white potato for muscle gain and weight loss. The size of the circle is proportional to the number of samples. “Most enslaved people preferred white [yams] because the starchy drier taste most resembled the taste of sweet cassava or tropical yams.”. We also assessed the relationship between the clustering and climate variables. She dismissed the cinnamon and stressed her preference for a little butter. On a baking sheet lined with aluminum foil, prick sweet potatoes all over with a fork. The SSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism. PLoS ONE 12(5): Sweet potatoes are a nutritious form of carbohydrates. The lowest value of the graph was not clear. To choose K, which describes our dataset well, we ran successive Ks (3, 4, 5, 6) to run DAPC. (2017) Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient. The lower diversity in East Africa than in West Africa suggests that sweet potato was not simply a sub-sample from East Africa but might have been re-introduced into West Africa later on. A total of 31 different local names were recorded: 18 in Togo and 13 in Senegal. There's also a version of sweet potato that has a thin yellow skin and yellow flesh, though those are less common. Each SSR allele was binary coded (0 for absence and 1 for presence) following previous approaches used for this hexaploid species [24]. More thorough sampling throughout Africa is now needed to assess such hypotheses. In Mexico, Peru, Chile, Central America, and the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote (alternatively spelled kamote in the Philippines), derived from the Nahuatl word camotli. In fact, I learned about the “farm to table” movement long before it was “chic” or popular, as it is these days. Explore. Hence, scientific name of Sweet Potato is used worldwide. Sweet potatoes generally have an orange flesh and a maroon or copper skin. So someone has deleted the names of Sweet Potato in various languages? Allelic frequency among the accessions ranged from 0.007 to 0.990 and PIC from 0.11 to 0.31 with a mean of 0.19 (Fig 1). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. But, most of the names used for sweet potato varieties clearly identify the species in different languages. America, Oceania and West Africa with the two datasets. In addition to the six common traits, we found the color of the leaf petiole. 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