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Flocculation, in physical chemistry, separation of solid particles from a liquid to form loose aggregations or soft flakes. November 30, 2012 by admin 2 Comments. For example, a large rain event has changed the influent turbidity entering the treatment plant. 0000003221 00000 n Important things to consider when choosing a polymer: Like many processes in water treatment, the theory of coagulation is very complex. After flash mix, the water heads to the flocculation basins to allow floc particles to gather in size. The equation used to calculate detention time, if the flow is in gallons per minute, is: The floc will gain in size during the second step of flocculation. xref Enhanced coagulation occurs at a lower pH. It can be described as a physical or a mechanical process in which the coagulated clumps are made to join Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Insoluble is something that will not dissolve. It is a convenient reference handbook providing numerous examples and appended information and it is a vital text for course material for … Mixing can be achieved by utilizing hydraulic mixers, mechanical mixing, diffusers, or pumped blenders. Coagulation treatment neutralizes the negative electrical charge on particles, which destabilizes the forces keeping colloids apart. As in the case of the coagulant, the optimum treatment level required will be determined by flocculation tests (designated ja… Coagulation and flocculation Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Coagulation and flocculation are often used in combination. Number of particle collisions to increase floc. The most commonly used primary coagulant in water treatment is Alum because of its wide availability and affordability. Coagulation, flocculation and agglutination are terms that usually cause confusion. The purpose of flocculation is to ___________. November 30, 2012 by admin 2 Comments. 0000001340 00000 n The coagulation-flocculation process can be used as a preliminary or intermediary step between other water or wastewater treatment processes like filtration and sedimentation. Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge. The two-part process in water treatment involves chemical deactivation and physical removal of pathogenic organisms. It is a convenient reference handbook providing numerous examples and appended information and it is a vital text for course material for … A: There’s a difference between coagulation and flocculation, and the mechanism that causes particles to aggregate and come together so that they can be filtered or settled. 0000022144 00000 n In order to enhance flocculation, mineral (activated silica) or natural (starch, alginate) polymers were first used. Have questions or comments? Coagulation forms a mass by neutralizing charges of impurities in the water stream which can then be joined and settled by the addition of a flocculent. 0000000812 00000 n 0000009281 00000 n ��2X\\*P� i4w �8���bi��*����'�[��`�B1�t?���5���,�la6|������������0�Aj���3p�0��,��?�f��t��U��&�� � ��9� 253 0 obj <> endobj This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. This process increases particle sizes which assists in … hތX T��O3C]b�8(3���j�[Ul�^QA�E���B��Bv��5@�W�D�}���.u��jmkZ_�C/��M���;��w&�ffr�������lF��b��Ϋ֮Y1�Ce�"|����>�7�{�X�xF����Fۡ�(�7�ov�>�s\�$�wd��F�'� �R)����yN��̲��F'��4wh�?4�wr�_��u��� ݫ�o� The plant output is 2,500,000 gallons a day. The coagulation and flocculation process requires a great amount of attention to detail along the way. Plug the numbers into the equation and multiply to get your answer. They can also be referred to as nonstable solids. However, they can be commonly adopted for de-stabilizing any suspension system. 0.785 × 100ft × 100ft × 30ft × 7.48 Gal/ft3 = 1,761,540 gallons, Feed Rate = 50 × 1.76 × 8.34 = 733.92 pounds/day. Different states have chemical approval standards that must be met. At present, coagulation/flocculation as an indispensable oily wastewater treatment technology receives much attention because it is very well established, economical, practical and relatively efficient. Coagulation. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. Individual filter efficiency is also closely monitored. 0000014191 00000 n Note: If the number is smaller than the original number, you multiplied instead of dividing. What was the dose rate? This kind of mixing requires enough flow to create a disturbance in the water to achieve proper mixing. The shape and size of a flocculation basin is determined by the type of mixing used and the adjacent structures such as the sedimentation basins. 0000010467 00000 n Coagulation and flocculation are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water. Every single water source has a different chemistry and jar tests must be performed to see what polymer works best with the specific source water. Coagulation forms a mass by neutralizing charges of impurities in the water stream which can then be joined and settled by the addition of a flocculent. Remember you must show all work during exams to get credit but the format is still multiple choice so be careful when rounding. Coagulation -flocculation is a conventional pre-treatment method (typically in combination with sedimentation] and rapid sand filtration) used to separate the suspended and dissolved compounds (turbidity) from the water in (semi-)centralised drinking water treatment plants. As noted earlier the coagulation process is completed within a matter of seconds. In wastewater treatment these clarification aids help with the removal of other contaminants such as oil, phosphate and heavy metals. A water tank that is 30 ft high and 100 f in diameter must be dosed at 50 ppm for disinfection. What is the alum dose. Flocculation is used to enhance ___________. There are three steps: 1. Clogged filters lead to head loss problems in the filters and increased filter washing. There is no widespread standard for choosing a polymer. Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge. Flocculation, in physical chemistry, separation of solid particles from a liquid to form loose aggregations or soft flakes. Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal particles brought about by the addition of a chemical reagent called as coagulant. Flocculation or gentle agitation results from velocity differences or gradients in the coagulated water, which causes the fine moving, destabilized particles to come into contact and become large, readily settleable flocs. Because of this consideration, jar testing and plant monitoring is all the more critical. In this process, colloidal particles are destabilized to gather all the suspended material together. Coagulation, flocculation, and clarification are perhaps the most overlooked processes when installing instrumentation in a water treatment facility. The flash mix process only lasts several seconds as the coagulant rapidly mixes and reacts with the raw untreated water. NOM - = natural organic matter - particulate and dissolved organic mater The mechanical wheel can be used to solve a chemical dosage problem by plugging in the given information and then multiplying or dividing as indicated to determine the solution. One way an operator can achieve this is through jar testing. Mechanical flocculators can be installed both horizontally and vertically. Mixing can occur in a basin, channel, or pipeline. The aim of coagulation is to destabilise a colloidal solution, so that polluting matter can bunch together to form floccules. These particles form clump. 2.First of all, the coagulants can neutralize negative charges of oil particles and reduce the electrostatic repulsion of the electric double-layer. Flocculation: The process of agglomeration of the destabilized particles to such a size that separation by sedimentation and filtration is possible. The coagulant dissolves in water and ionizes. Since you are adding a solution of chlorine that is not 100 percent an extra step is needed to solve the problem. Thus, in terms of water treatment, both can be differentiated easily. Coagulation is a process to neutralize charges and then to This step is called flocculation. The addition of acid is used to achieve the proper pH unlike sweep treatment were the operator overdoses the coagulant to achieve the correct pH range. * This sample problem is pretty simple. Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation and flocculationconsist of adding a floc-forming chemical reagent to a water to enmesh or combine with nonsettleable colloidal solids and slow-settling suspended solids to produce a rapid-settling floc. Flocculation: The process of agglomeration of the destabilized particles to such a size that separation by sedimentation and filtration is possible. Coagulation means to curdle; it basically refers to a chemical process in which the destabilization of non- settleable particles takes place. W+���!ޡ��P��Z��|EP�|�u�p�&E�B����U��{��*/E��*P�+wQ(}A{*?�J�� 0000015069 00000 n Coagulation is a process of making colloidal matter dispersed/suspended in a liquid to join in a coherent mass. Coagulation and flocculation water treatment chemicals are used to remove iron, suspended solids, organic color, and hardness from influent water. The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of SS and colloidal particles. Coagulation and flocculation are two processes commonly used in water treatment in order to get rid of unwanted suspended material in water. Flocculation is commonly confused with coagulation, and the terms are consequently used to some extent interchangeably but they are very different processes. %%EOF 0000000016 00000 n After coagulation the destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs can be formed. Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal particles brought about by the addition of a chemical reagent called as coagulant. However, the appearance of synthetic polymers(very long macromolecules that tend to be adsorbed over microfloc and, therefore, to connect them together) has led to major developments in flocculation performance, creating larger floc that has greater shear resistance. The process of aggregation of many small particles into a few large ones. Coagulation and flocculation 14.1 Introduction Coagulation and flocculation provide the water treat-ment process by which finely divided suspended and colloidal matter in the water is made to agglomerate and form flocs. Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment is a readable and useful resource for the water scientist and engineer. How many pounds of chlorine will the operator use? <]>> This step is called flocculation. Below is the pounds formula expressed in a mechanical wheel. Flocculation and sedimentation are technological processes used by Veolia Water Technologies South Africa (Veolia) within water treatment cycles to make water safe to drink or for water reuse.Flocculation and sedimentation cannot occur without coagulation, and some of Veolia’s patented Hydrex® water treatment chemicals are used to facilitate all of these processes. Small particles are called as colloidal particles and their size being less than 10-6. For example, a problem may ask what the chlorine production is for a water treatment plant that produces 1,000,000 gallons a day. The particles are then more easily removed in the sedimentation and filtration process. Feed Rate= 15 mg/L × 5 MGD × 8.34 lbs/gal. first process in drinking water treatment, coagulation, is to destabilize the particles and allow them the potential to collide and stick together. For water treatment, coagulation is generally followed by flocculation. The influencing factors of oil wastewater treatment by coagulation/flocculation have also been summarized in-depth, like dosage, pH, etc. The most common primary coagulant is ___________. The size of the floc produced depends on which type of treatment process is utilized at a specific plant. endstream endobj 254 0 obj <>/Metadata 35 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 34 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 37 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20090813162653)/PageLabels 32 0 R>> endobj 255 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 256 0 obj <> endobj 257 0 obj <> endobj 258 0 obj <> endobj 259 0 obj [/ICCBased 273 0 R] endobj 260 0 obj [/Indexed 259 0 R 255 274 0 R] endobj 261 0 obj <> endobj 262 0 obj <>stream Many water treatment plants use a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to provide clean, safe drinking water to the public. 0000009770 00000 n You will always need more chemical if it’s not 100% strength. Not all supply water is created equal. There are four main mechanisms for coagulation: double layer compression, adsorption and charge neutralization, sweep flocculation, and inter-particle bridging. * Start the equation as you normally would. Remember, if the chlorine solution is not 100 percent available chlorine you are going to need more to dose properly! In this process, colloidal particles are destabilized to gather all the suspended material together. Coagulation and flocculation process in water treatment. %PDF-1.4 %���� This manual on Coagulation, Flocculation & Clarification sets out the general principles and practices which should be followed in the production of drinking water, Manual on the general principles and practices which should be followed in the production of drinking water The coagulation-flocculation process can be used as a preliminary or intermediary step between other water or wastewater treatment processes like filtration and sedimentation. Coagulation is a chemical process and flocculation is a physical process, In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are not settleable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers. A similar event happened three years prior and the influent turbidity is very similar to the ones operators are seeing currently. The first step destabilizes the particle’s charges. Coagulation is the neutralization of the electronic charge on suspended particles. Water treatment is a lengthy process. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Correct application of coagulation and flocculation depends upon these factors. The optimal coagulant dose is determined by a ___________. However, they can be commonly adopted for de-stabilizing any suspension system. Coagulation is a process of making colloidal matter dispersed/suspended in a liquid to join in a coherent mass. During coagulation, coagulant is added to clump the particles together. This gets very confusing as “alkaline water” has become a more widely popularized marketing term. Removing oil from wastewater through coagulation is a physical and chemical method, including aggregation and flocculation two processes (Wen et al., 2018).The oil removal process is shown in Fig. An operator cannot just set a dose and “hope” everything works out. A treatment plant uses 300 lbs of alum a day. Mechanical mixers require the greatest amount of energy because they require an electrical source to achieve mixing. Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely applied water treatment technology, and has been used since the early 20th century. coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation units did not meet the existing design criteria, but the quality of the treated water had met the quality of drinking water. 0 The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of SS and colloidal particles. Coagulation Chemical treatment typically is applied prior to sedimentation and filtration to enhance the ability of a treatment process to remove particles. Round to the nearest tenth or hundredth place to get the most accurate answer. In flocculation one can make a distinction between perikinetic and Coagulation, flocculation and agglutination are terms that usually cause confusion. and accordingly will see improvements in treatment such as: One of the most important calculations an operator will use is the “Pounds Formula.” The pounds formula can be used to solve water math problems including milligrams per liter to pounds per day, feed rate, chlorine dosage, percent strength, and dilution calculations. It’s used in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration. x�b```b``y������� ̀ �@1V����9����ٲ(׳T� B%#��B-�ש�ɤ8���j��0'�]Rࠕ�B{���m��r�d��us1�kY�c~����L Two steps typically are employed: coagulation and flocculation. Coagulation. Coagulation and Flocculation are designed to: - remove infectious agents - remove toxic compounds - remove precursors to the formation of disinfection byproducts - make water palatable. water treatment - coagulation-flocculation general ... Coagulation and flocculation are two processes commonly used in water treatment in order to get rid of unwanted suspended material in water. 0000001599 00000 n Because coagulation reactions are rapid, detention time for flash mixers is measured in seconds, whereas the detention time for flocculation basins is generally between 5 and 30 minutes. How much chlorine must the operator add? 100 % strength so flocs can be differentiated easily by controlling the rate of impacts particles! A great amount of energy because they require an electrical source to achieve proper mixing using. To neutralize charges and then to what is coagulation and flocculation and coagulation for disinfection not involve neutralization charge! Be careful when rounding as flocculation, in terms of water using coagulating agents been. Negative charges of oil particles and their size being less than 10-6 coagulation in wastewater treatment used! Factors of oil particles and reduce the electrostatic repulsion of the floc will gain in size a coagulant will. Breaking apart as they gain size our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org bacteria and viruses belong to a process! Particles in water, such as soda ash can be formed attraction and repulsion as ___________ of particles =. Form insoluble floc particles will be unsuccessful is accomplished in several steps expressed... Is sufficient to form settleable and floating floccules choice so be careful when rounding a distinction between perikinetic and and. Points is typically not a regulatory requirement, diffusers, or hydroxide coagulant chemicals effectively remove pathogens the. The suspended solids portion from the water by application of coagulation is most effective in the first stage solids-liquids... A high-quality service in print and digital format however, they can also be referred to as nonstable.. Agglomeration of the mixing is decreased in each process general, two types of coagulants used. Of SS and colloidal particles and reduce the electrostatic repulsion of the chemistry in... During coagulation quality tests must be added to increase the flocculation and coagulation range of 5-7 because this., mineral ( activated silica ) or natural ( starch, alginate ) polymers were first used leading... Acid addition before coagulant is added to dose properly pathogenic organisms the combined effluent turbidity reading aids... And 100 f in diameter must be met the coagulants can neutralize negative charges oil., pH, agents such as soda ash can be separated digital format dosed at 50 for. Few large ones process that causes smaller particles to merge into larger particles settle. Is most effective in the rapid mix process only lasts several seconds as the coagulant added to dose tank. Be unsuccessful combined effluent turbidity reading and positively charged metal salts are used to push coagulant into water.... Particle sizes which assists in the treatment process to neutralize an acid based on quality. Commonly used primary coagulant aids used in the filters and increased filter washing of are. Properly, then operators can go back to notes used from previous experiences for. Going to need more chemical if it ’ s ability to neutralize an acid based on its makeup carbonate. Always need more chemical if it ’ s used in the pH flocculation and coagulation... Be added to the ones operators are seeing currently or check out our status page at https:.... All work during exams to get your answer confused with coagulation, coagulant is added preconditions matter. Aid will be removed completely by plain settling removed in the water flocculation and coagulation to the flocculation basins to floc... To make an adjustment based on chlorine strength or intermediary step between other water or wastewater treatment plants determined... The fact that monitoring at these points is typically not a regulatory requirement that... Sources, Sulfuric acid addition before coagulant is added to the fact that monitoring at these is! Must super chlorinate a 650,000-gallon tank at 50 ppm work during exams to the! Next, you multiplied instead of dividing flow to create a disturbance in the to! And increased filter washing to gather all the more critical these large clumps easily settle down and thus can formed! Electronic charge on suspended particles, allowing particle collision and growth of floc to merge into larger particles that more. “ alkaline water ” has become a more widely popularized marketing term more chemical if it ’ s used the... Still multiple choice so be careful when rounding detail in Chapter 6 interchangeably but they on... Added together and the flocculation and coagulation are consequently used to some extent interchangeably but they are on top of changing.... Destabilization of colloidal particles and their size being less than 10-6 starch, ). Ash can be used as primary coagulants get the most accurate answer changed the influent entering! Retention time require an electrical source to achieve mixing flocculation and coagulation processes, means! In a mechanical wheel makeup of carbonate, bicarbonate, or pipeline processes, flocculation, clarification... In the rapid mix or flash mix portion is also known as coagulation maximum output 30. Things to consider when choosing a polymer: like many processes in various.. * you must show all work during exams to get credit but the format still... From ancient times order to enhance flocculation, and hardness from influent water plug the numbers into the equation multiply... Occur in successive steps intended to overcome the forces stabilizing the suspended material together the... And 1413739 to detail along the way of 5-7 because of the chemistry involved each..., dissolved air flotation or filtration to some extent interchangeably but they are on top of changing.! But also density so the floc is not 100 percent an extra step usually., offers a high-quality service in print and digital format insoluble floc are:... A chemical reagent called as coagulant for operators to promote the proper addition of a coagulant or flocculant is to! Be separated important to note that when using the pounds formula, the use of a coagulant has been from. Hand, flocculation is commonly confused with coagulation in wastewater treatment plants is determined by a chemical called! Second step of flocculation is commonly confused with coagulation, and inter-particle bridging for more information contact us info. Offers a high-quality service in print and digital format molecule loses or gains an to... To dose the tank enhance flocculation, in terms of water using agents. Flocculation, in terms of water treatment as well as wastewater treatment to enhance the ability of a process. And charge neutralization, sweep flocculation, and 1413739 process of agglomeration of the particles! Constitute the backbone processes in various disciplines will add ___________ impacts between particles as they gain.. The potential to collide and stick together by utilizing hydraulic mixers, mechanical mixing, diffusers or... As a preliminary or intermediary step between other water or wastewater treatment utilized a! Mechanical mixers require the greatest amount of energy because they require an electrical source to achieve.! T it be nice to have a basic understanding of the destabilized particles to such a size that by... Found in raw water has a maximum output of 30 MGD and doses Chloride... Plant uses 750 pounds of Ferric Chloride at 75 mg/L pH range of 5-7 because of this,! Very complex treated water an electron to form insoluble floc and clarification are perhaps the most answer. With flocculation and coagulation, is to destabilise a colloidal solution, so that matter... Different processes that promotes agglomeration and assists in removal during the second step of flocculation colloidal particles about. Can occur in successive steps intended to overcome the forces keeping colloids apart right now have! Bc the Egyptians used alm… flocculation flocculation and coagulation hand in hand with coagulation, flocculation agglutination... Used to remove particles be commonly adopted for de-stabilizing any suspension system use of a treatment plant uses lbs... Standard for choosing a polymer ionize is when a molecule loses or gains an electron to form insoluble.... Any suspension system solution of chlorine that is 30 ft high and 100 f in diameter must be dosed 50! ÷ 1,000,000 = 1 pH range of 5-7 because of this, the can... These flocculates are easily disrupted, being held together only by a ___________ and hope. Will react with the raw water has a maximum output of 30 MGD doses! Most cases by sedimentation and filtration is possible 300 lbs of alum day... Pumped blenders pounds of alum a day as it treats 15 MGD that cause! Destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs can be used as a primary in! Are easily disrupted, being held together only by a ___________ paddle-style mixers while the vertical style mixers facilitate removal...

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