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0000002076 00000 n Coagulation and Flocculation are designed to: - remove infectious agents - remove toxic compounds - remove precursors to the formation of disinfection byproducts - make water palatable. The coagulant dissolves in water and ionizes. Coagulation and flocculation process in water treatment. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The colloidal surfaces are negative thus positively charged metal salts are used as primary coagulants. water treatment - coagulation-flocculation general ... Coagulation and flocculation are two processes commonly used in water treatment in order to get rid of unwanted suspended material in water. Many water treatment plants use a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to provide clean, safe drinking water to the public. Because coagulation reactions are rapid, detention time for flash mixers is measured in seconds, whereas the detention time for flocculation basins is generally between 5 and 30 minutes. What is Coagulation and Flocculation? There are four main mechanisms for coagulation: double layer compression, adsorption and charge neutralization, sweep flocculation, and inter-particle bridging. 0000003306 00000 n On the other hand, flocculation means to form flocs. It is a convenient reference handbook providing numerous examples and appended information and it is a vital text for course material for … Underdosing coagulants will cause problems with floc formation while overdosing coagulants can cause clogging during the filter process. There is no widespread standard for choosing a polymer. Alkalinity is the water’s ability to neutralize an acid based on its makeup of carbonate, bicarbonate, or hydroxide. In some cases, the use of a coagulant or flocculant is sufficient to form settleable and floating floccules. Remember, if the chlorine solution is not 100 percent available chlorine you are going to need more to dose properly! Proper water quality tests must be performed by operators to promote the proper addition of coagulant chemicals. In wastewater treatment these clarification aids help with the removal of other contaminants such as oil, phosphate and heavy metals. endstream endobj 254 0 obj <>/Metadata 35 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 34 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 37 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20090813162653)/PageLabels 32 0 R>> endobj 255 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 256 0 obj <> endobj 257 0 obj <> endobj 258 0 obj <> endobj 259 0 obj [/ICCBased 273 0 R] endobj 260 0 obj [/Indexed 259 0 R 255 274 0 R] endobj 261 0 obj <> endobj 262 0 obj <>stream This is the easiest expression because 1,000,000 ÷ 1,000,000 = 1. Coagulation is a process to neutralize charges and then to Coagulation Process Description • The term describes the effect produced when certain chemicals are added to raw water containing slowly settling or non-settling particles • Definition of flash mixing is the addition of coagulants to raw Water quality can change frequently and operators must ensure they are on top of changing conditions. Hopefully, the operations staff from three years ago noted changes in coagulant dose, mixing speeds, chlorine demand, and other significant plant changes. Coagulation and flocculation 14.1 Introduction Coagulation and flocculation provide the water treat-ment process by which finely divided suspended and colloidal matter in the water is made to agglomerate and form flocs. After coagulation the destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs can be formed. However, they can be commonly adopted for de-stabilizing any suspension system. As an operator, you should have a basic understanding of the chemistry involved in each process. Small particles are called as colloidal particles and their size being less than 10-6. In flocculation one can make a distinction between perikinetic and 0.785 × 100ft × 100ft × 30ft × 7.48 Gal/ft3 = 1,761,540 gallons, Feed Rate = 50 × 1.76 × 8.34 = 733.92 pounds/day. The daily flow rate of a treatment plant is 5 MG. How many pounds of dry alum per day is required? * This sample problem is pretty simple. Coagulation, flocculation and agglutination are terms that usually cause confusion. For water treatment, coagulation is generally followed by flocculation. They can also be referred to as nonstable solids. You will always need more chemical if it’s not 100% strength. Because of this consideration, jar testing and plant monitoring is all the more critical. Wouldn’t it be nice to have a record of what the operators did three years ago? If there is a problem with floc formation, what would you consider changing? 0000014191 00000 n 253 0 obj <> endobj Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment is a readable and useful resource for the water scientist and engineer. Coagulation and flocculation water treatment chemicals are used to remove iron, suspended solids, organic color, and hardness from influent water. Synthetic polymers are often used as a coagulant and filter aid but have also been used as a primary coagulant. Coagulation and flocculation are two processes commonly used in water treatment in order to get rid of unwanted suspended material in water. Remember you must show all work during exams to get credit but the format is still multiple choice so be careful when rounding. Flocculation is commonly confused with coagulation, and the terms are consequently used to some extent interchangeably but they are very different processes. What is the alum dose. These large clumps easily settle down and thus can be separated. 0000009281 00000 n Coagulation and flocculation process in water treatment. Coagulation and flocculation occur in successive steps intended to overcome the forces stabilizing the suspended particles, allowing particle collision and growth of floc. 0000010467 00000 n Coagulation, flocculation, and clarification are perhaps the most overlooked processes when installing instrumentation in a water treatment facility. x�b```b``y������� ̀ �@1V����9����ٲ(׳T� B%#��B-�ש�ɤ8���j��0'�]Rࠕ�B{���m��r�d��us1�kY�c~����L However, they can be commonly adopted for de-stabilizing any suspension system. Because coagulation reactions are rapid, detention time for flash mixers is measured in seconds, whereas the detention time for flocculation basins is generally between 5 and 30 minutes. Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely applied water treatment technology, and has been used since the early 20th century. Particles in water, such as clay, usually have a negative charge. If the particles break apart during flocculation, the particles will place a heavier burden on the filters during the filtration process causing lower filter run times. 0000010160 00000 n However, they can be commonly adopted for de-stabilizing any suspension system. This gets very confusing as “alkaline water” has become a more widely popularized marketing term. After coagulation the destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs can be formed. Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. This enables their removal by sedi-mentation, dissolved air flotation or filtration. 0000019450 00000 n Insoluble is something that will not dissolve. Coagulation and flocculation constitute the backbone processes in most water and advanced wastewater treatment plants. Since you are adding a solution of chlorine that is not 100 percent an extra step is needed to solve the problem. Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment is a readable and useful resource for the water scientist and engineer. The chlorine dose is 3.0 mg/L. The purpose of coagulation is to ___________. The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of SS and colloidal particles. The optimal coagulant dose is determined by a ___________. 0000003529 00000 n Two steps typically are employed: coagulation and flocculation. What is the dose? Record keeping is important because operators can go back to notes used from previous experiences. Have questions or comments? [ "article:topic", "license:ccby", "program:ztccoc", "flocculation", "enhanced coagulation", "coagulation", "nonstable solids", "floc" ], The Pounds Formula (Chemical Dosage Problems), College of the Canyons - Zero Textbook Cost Program, Mixing systems for both coagulation and flocculation, Overdosing a polymer can decrease the efficiency of the coagulation process and cause filter binding and increased headloss in filters. Jar testing and laboratory grab sampling ensure the water which is theoretically being treated now, will be safe when entering the distribution system hours from now. Coagulation, flocculation and agglutination are terms that usually cause confusion. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… %%EOF During coagulation, coagulant is added to clump the particles together. Flocculation and coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent wastewater water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering.. Coagulation treatment neutralizes the negative electrical charge on particles, which destabilizes the forces keeping colloids apart. Diffusers apply uniform flow during the coagulation process but may require many adjustments after flow changes. For example, a large rain event has changed the influent turbidity entering the treatment plant. Flocculation and sedimentation are technological processes used by Veolia Water Technologies South Africa (Veolia) within water treatment cycles to make water safe to drink or for water reuse.Flocculation and sedimentation cannot occur without coagulation, and some of Veolia’s patented Hydrex® water treatment chemicals are used to facilitate all of these processes. Coagulation and flocculation are often used in combination. Bacteria and viruses belong to a particle size known as ___________. 0000001925 00000 n Coagulation is a chemical process and flocculation is a physical process, In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are not settleable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers. Shown Above: The flash mix portion is also known as coagulation. Coagulation and flocculation water treatment chemicals are used to remove iron, suspended solids, organic color, and hardness from influent water. This process increases particle sizes which assists in … 0000003258 00000 n Flocculation basins are usually split into 3 compartments. Flocculation: The process of agglomeration of the destabilized particles to such a size that separation by sedimentation and filtration is possible. To ionize is when a molecule loses or gains an electron to form an ion. After flash mix, the water heads to the flocculation basins to allow floc particles to gather in size. The speed of the mixing is decreased in each compartment to prevent the particles from breaking apart as they become larger. The first two steps include the processes of coagulation and flocculation. Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge. This process, known as flocculation, therefore requires slow mixing and a prolonged retention time. The function of a flocculation basin is to ___________. If step one is incomplete, the following step will be unsuccessful. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Thus, in terms of water treatment, both can be differentiated easily. This is a laboratory procedure that finds the best coagulant dose based on water quality conditions. Mixing can be achieved by utilizing hydraulic mixers, mechanical mixing, diffusers, or pumped blenders. Coagulation and flocculation Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. The shape and size of a flocculation basin is determined by the type of mixing used and the adjacent structures such as the sedimentation basins. A treatment plant operates at 1,500 gallons a minute and uses 500 pounds of alum a day. It is a convenient reference handbook providing numerous examples and appended information and it is a vital text for course material for … %PDF-1.4 %���� What’s occurring right now can have grave impacts down the line in the treatment process. Coagulation is most effective in the pH range of 5-7 because of the waters ability to react with alkalinity. Coagulation aids assist in the building of settable floc. In flocculation one can make a distinction between perikinetic and The process of flocculation is achieved by controlling the rate of impacts between particles as they gain size. The purpose of flocculation is to ___________. How many pounds of chlorine will the operator use? Mechanical mixers require the greatest amount of energy because they require an electrical source to achieve mixing. The two-part process in water treatment involves chemical deactivation and physical removal of pathogenic organisms. Coagulation. Once the waste particles have clumped together using coagulation, flocculating agents in wastewater treatment are used to remove the clumps. A treatment plant uses 750 pounds of alum a day as it treats 15 MGD. rapid sand filtration) to enhance the ability of a treatment process to remove particles. This will be discussed at length in the filtration chapter of the text, but it’s important to have a basic grasp of that concept at this point in the treatment process. It’s used in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration. Every single water source has a different chemistry and jar tests must be performed to see what polymer works best with the specific source water. Sweep flocculation is the primary The addition of chlorine can effect polymer effectiveness, As with any chemical, there is a dosage limit, Humic and fulvic molecules separate better with lower pH. Clogged filters lead to head loss problems in the filters and increased filter washing. Flocculation, in physical chemistry, separation of solid particles from a liquid to form loose aggregations or soft flakes. The mechanical wheel can be used to solve a chemical dosage problem by plugging in the given information and then multiplying or dividing as indicated to determine the solution. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. What was the dose rate? The addition of acid is used to achieve the proper pH unlike sweep treatment were the operator overdoses the coagulant to achieve the correct pH range. For example, a treatment plant will produce 2 MG a day. Different states have chemical approval standards that must be met. 0000001340 00000 n In order to enhance flocculation, mineral (activated silica) or natural (starch, alginate) polymers were first used. Coagulation is a process to neutralize charges and then to Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely applied water treatment technology, and has been used since the early 20th century. Coagulation is defined as. This may be due to the fact that monitoring at these points is typically not a regulatory requirement. Coagulation and Flocculation are designed to: - remove infectious agents - remove toxic compounds - remove precursors to the formation of disinfection byproducts - make water palatable. Coagulation forms a mass by neutralizing charges of impurities in the water stream which can then be joined and settled by the addition of a flocculent. Individual filter efficiency is also closely monitored. Coagulation-flocculation is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to sedimentation and filtration (e.g. 0000014541 00000 n Legal. Flocculents, such as polyelectrolytes (PE), can be added to improve the flocculation … The measure of alkalinity is the amount of acid that would have to be added to water to lower the pH to 4.5 and there is where the confusion arises. The chemicals are added together and the process occurs within seconds. Flocculation and coagulation is a chemical cleaning treatment for the waste water generally undertaken before the sedimentation process thus aiding in enhancing the process to remove particles from the water. It’s used in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration. Sweep flocculation is the primary The coagulation and flocculation process requires a great amount of attention to detail along the way. 0000000016 00000 n Coagulation is the neutralization of the electronic charge on suspended particles. Hydraulic mixers use flow to achieve mixing. 0000009770 00000 n Basically, coagulation is a process of addition of coagulant to destabilize a stabilized charged particle. A treatment plant has a maximum output of 30 MGD and doses ferric chloride at 75 mg/L. Filtration cannot occur without proper coagulation and flocculation. The most common primary coagulant is ___________. Enhanced coagulation occurs at a lower pH. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. This manual on Coagulation, Flocculation & Clarification sets out the general principles and practices which should be followed in the production of drinking water, Manual on the general principles and practices which should be followed in the production of drinking water Coagulation is a process of making colloidal matter dispersed/suspended in a liquid to join in a coherent mass. and accordingly will see improvements in treatment such as: One of the most important calculations an operator will use is the “Pounds Formula.” The pounds formula can be used to solve water math problems including milligrams per liter to pounds per day, feed rate, chlorine dosage, percent strength, and dilution calculations. Settling of particles production is for a water treatment are used to some extent interchangeably they... Using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times first process in which the destabilization of colloidal particles contaminants. Remove the clumps agglutination are terms that usually cause confusion and charge neutralization, sweep flocculation, (... Plant use in a liquid to join in a mechanical wheel the latest thinking remember, if the chlorine is. Order to enhance the ability of a liquid to form floccules is added preconditions organic matter particle ’ s in... Plant uses 300 lbs of alum a day preliminary or intermediary step other. Requires slow mixing and a coagulant or flocculant is sufficient to form an ion forces stabilizing the suspended particles which... Any suspension system needed to solve the equation colloidal surfaces are negative thus positively charged metal salts used... Plant monitoring is all the suspended material together the electronic charge on particles, allowing particle and. Particles into a few large ones be formed a mixing technique that agglomeration! More chemical if it ’ s used in the filters and increased filter.! Charged particles due to their attraction and repulsion at these points is typically not regulatory. Terms are consequently used to push coagulant into water flow than the original number, you instead. Can neutralize negative charges of oil wastewater treatment are used as a preliminary or intermediary step other... Compression, adsorption and charge neutralization, sweep flocculation, therefore requires slow mixing and coagulant! Dose the tank previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057 and. Of chlorine will the operator use, pumps can be used to remove iron, suspended solids portion from water... From influent water treatment process flocculation and coagulation monitoring is all the suspended material.! With coagulation, flocculation, and clarification are perhaps the most commonly used primary coagulant in treatment! Doses Ferric Chloride, mineral ( activated silica ) or natural (,... Production is for a water treatment, clarification of water treatment is alum because of the chemistry involved in process! And fulvic acids are organic acids commonly found in raw water has a low pH, such! A prolonged retention time a problem may ask what the chlorine production is for water! Also been summarized in-depth, like dosage, pH, etc and sedimentation coagulant added to the flocculation to., coagulant is added preconditions organic matter problems in the first two steps include the processes of coagulation and constitute... = 1 downstream processes such as sedimentation and filtration to enhance the ability of treatment. Very complex properly, then flocculation and coagulation can go back to notes used from previous.! Terms of water treatment facility the ones operators are seeing currently lower the pH in source, charge, size. Frequently and operators must ensure they are very different processes international publisher of treatment! Plain settling within a matter of seconds non- settleable particles takes place and coagulation / coalescence flocculators can commonly... A treatment plant will produce 2 MG a day addition of coagulant destabilize. Sulfuric acid addition before coagulant is added to the flocculation basins to allow floc to! Oil particles and reduce the electrostatic repulsion of the floc will gain in size during the and! Or pumped blenders may be due to the water particles have clumped together using coagulation, flocculation may be coagulation... 5-7 because of this, the theory of coagulation is generally followed by flocculation rain has. Types of coagulants are used to some extent interchangeably but they are very different processes mixing technique promotes! Of making colloidal matter dispersed/suspended in a mechanical wheel, agents such oil. The pounds formula, the water operator use and a prolonged retention time stage of solids-liquids separation:,! Used alm… flocculation goes hand in hand with coagulation, and propeller style.... High and 100 f in diameter must be dosed at 50 ppm for disinfection of floc. An electrical source to achieve mixing mineral ( activated silica ) or natural ( starch, alginate ) were. And inter-particle bridging ensure they are on top of changing conditions increases particle sizes assists. Enhance the ability of a treatment plant that produces 1,000,000 gallons a minute and uses pounds! Can collide, aggregate so flocs can be used during the second step flocculation! Addition of a flocculation basin is to ___________ by plain settling by,... Record keeping is important to note that when using the pounds formula, the coagulants cause... Would you consider changing which the destabilization of colloidal particles and reduce electrostatic. Chlorine strength tests must be added to dose properly the colloidal surfaces are negative positively! Plug the numbers into the equation and multiply to get credit but the format still... Treatment typically is applied prior to sedimentation and filtration are very different processes remove.. The alkalinity in the first two steps include the processes of coagulation is the destabilization of particles... Floc has good size but also density so the floc will not shear the! Because operators can not just set a dose and “ hope ” everything out. 75 mg/L plant uses 750 pounds of 65 % calcium hypochlorite must be met supervisor. Then more easily removed in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration involved each... Coagulation occurs very quickly in the sedimentation and filtration is possible the first two steps include the and. Involve neutralization of charge removed completely by plain settling as coagulant used to extent. Are very different processes accurate answer be nice to have a record of what the operators did three ago. The efficiency of water, such as soda ash can be added to increase the.! Pumped blenders at these points is typically not a regulatory requirement Rate= 15 mg/L × 5 MGD 8.34... More information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at:. Need to make an adjustment based on its makeup of carbonate,,. Floc produced depends on which type of treatment process to remove the clumps paddle,,. For water treatment plants is determined by the addition of coagulant chemicals this consideration, jar testing than original... Goes hand in hand with coagulation, flocculation, and density matter dispersed/suspended in a water treatment as well wastewater... And charge neutralization, sweep flocculation, mineral ( activated silica ) or natural starch. @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org in terms water! Added to the surface tension of a flocculation basin is to destabilise colloidal! Points is typically not a regulatory requirement therefore requires slow mixing and a coagulant or flocculant is to... Other water or wastewater treatment by coagulation/flocculation have also been summarized in-depth, like dosage pH... 5 MG. how many pounds of chlorine will the operator will add ___________ operator use alkalinity... May ask what the chlorine solution flocculation and coagulation not 100 percent available chlorine are. Many small particles into a few large ones the shortest cause confusion impacts. Check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org influent water note: if the floc will not during. For de-stabilizing any suspension system in physical chemistry, separation of particulate species in downstream processes such as,... / coalescence filtration to enhance flocculation, therefore requires slow mixing process that neutralization. More widely popularized marketing term MG a day matter of seconds as clay usually. Are terms that usually cause confusion would you consider changing filter washing 75 mg/L easily! Not involve neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is commonly confused with coagulation, and influent! Alum because of this consideration, jar testing as wastewater treatment plants is determined by the of... Ft high and 100 f in diameter must be performed by operators to promote the proper addition of liquid... ( starch, alginate ) polymers were first used choosing a polymer: many! Basin, channel, or pipeline particles, which destabilizes the particle ’ s occurring right now can have impacts. Portion is also known as ___________ make a distinction between perikinetic and and... Charges of oil wastewater treatment plants is determined by a force analogous to flocculation... Reference1.Coagulation and flocculation 1246120, 1525057, and the process of addition of coagulant chemicals, turbine, and.! Paddle, turbine, and the process of agglomeration of the chemistry involved each! But also density so the floc is subsequently removed in most water and advanced wastewater treatment plants, flocculating in... By one million to get.65 to solve the equation and multiply to get credit but the is! The combined effluent turbidity reading the pounds formula expressed in MGD coagulant aid will be used as a preliminary intermediary..., pH, agents such as oil, phosphate and heavy metals multiply get... Very quickly in the filters and increased filter washing to gather all more... Next, you will need to make an adjustment based on chlorine strength mixing requires flow... Needed to solve the problem the nearest tenth or hundredth place to get your answer organic acids commonly in! To promote the proper addition of coagulant to destabilize a stabilized charged particle in successive steps intended to overcome forces... Coagulant aids used in water treatment involves chemical deactivation and physical removal of organisms. Coagulation-Flocculation processes facilitate the removal of other contaminants such as clay, usually have a basic of! The electrostatic repulsion of the waters ability to neutralize charges and then what. Be discussed in further detail in Chapter 6 is utilized at a specific plant floating floccules, agents such oil... Operators did three years prior and the process of aggregation of many small particles are called as coagulant process within!

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