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mechanism of ascent of sap 1. Vital Force Theories Vital theories. Root pressure forces the water up from below. Theories of ascent of sap : The various theories put forward to explain the mechanism of ascent of sap in plants can be placed in following three categories : (1) Vital force theories (a) ROOT PRESSURE. (It is called the sap as it contains many dissolved minerals). They are as follows: Vital theories. Physical force theories . Vital theories. Many theories have been proposed to explain the mechanism of ascent of sap. The conducting cells in xylem are typically non-living and include, in various groups of plants, vessels members and tracheids. A number of theories have been put forward to explain the mechanism of ascent of sap as follows. The ascent of sap takes place in the lumen of vessels and tracheids situated between the parenchyma root hair and cortex of the root below, and the mesophyll tissue of the leaf above. Vital theories: Westermaier in the year 1883 for the first time suggested that living cells take part in ascent of sap. The hydrostatic pressure generated in the root which forces the water upward in the stem is called root pressure. Mechanism of transportation of water in plants. Mechanism of ascent of sap. It is dilute solution of mineral ions absorbed from the soils. Various theories have been put forward by different scientists to explain the process of ascent of sap. Typical red wood tree: About 350 ft. This water is conducted upwards to the leaves through xylem. They are, A. Here are following theories which explain the ascent of sap in plants: a) Root pressure (b) Capillarity (c) Vital theory and (d) Cohesion-tension theory. Although a mechanism of ascent of sap is not well understood, a number of theories have been put forward to explain it. But, the most widely accepted theory is Dixon’s theory of ascent of sap. 1. 2. Vital theories 2. Here are following theories which explain the ascent of sap in plants: a) Root pressure (b) Capillarity (c) Vital theory and (d) Cohesion-tension theory. The ascent of sap in the xylem tissue of plants is the upward movement of water and minerals from the root to the crown. 1. Vital force theories, B. Root pressure theory, and C. Physical force theory. Various theories based upon biological and physical phenomena were suggested to explain the mechanism of rapid translocation of water from roots to the uppermost leaves. Root pressure theory. Root pressure forces the water up from below. Further, it has been proved experimentally that sap moves up the stem through the lumen of xylem vessels and tracheids and not through their walls. Physical theories. Xylem is a complex tissue consisting of living and non-living cells. (a) ROOT PRESSURE The hydrostatic pressure generated in the root which forces the water upward in the stem is called root pressure. A number of theories have been put forward to explain the mechanism of the ascent of sap. Mechanism of ascent of sap. According to this theory the water present in the leaves is continuously evaporated by sunlight falling over them. Root pressure theory 3. A number of theories have been put forward from time to time to account for the ascent of sap. According these theories, the living cells of the plants are responsible for the ascent of sap… Live pump theories: Plant physiologists of 1880’s like Westermeir, Godlewski, Sir J. C. Bose (1920s), Priestly and others opined that the ascent of sap or water is due to pump like activity of living cells found among the dead xylem elements. THEORIES EXPLAINING ASCENT OF SAP. Explain mechanism of ascent sap - 2433421 Hey, friend, The fluid that moves upward in the stem is not pure water. 1. The upward movement of water and dissolved mineral salts from roots upwards to the leaves and other aerial parts is called Ascent of Sap. 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